“ The online surveys conducted in three waves; February, April, and June 2013. ”

In the first wave of the survey in January 2013 the online questionnaire was openly distributed via online social networks and personal e-mail lists. To build trust and make sure the respondents that participation is safe and secure the strong ties of the online networks were used. The researcher asked some online activists, bloggers, and administrator of Facebook pages to distribute the online questionnaire with some encouraging and trusting words. In this wave, the respondents were also asked to write down their e-mail address to track them for following waves. Of 1051 respondents who completed the survey about 500 provided us with their e-mail address.

In the further waves the online questionnaire with slight changes was sent to the group of the acquired e-mail addresses from the first wave. Forty percent of them participated in all three waves. The second wave of survey was conducted in April 2013. The respondents rate was 56%.

In the last wave in June 2013, the third online questionnaire was distributed as similar way the first wave had been done. In total, 1049 participants completed the third wave of the survey soon after the Iran’s presidential election in June 2013.

Methodology Description


Variables at micro-level are categorized in seven main groups and a number of subgroups:
  • Demographics
  • Participation
    • Off-line Political Participation
    • Online Political Participation
    • Apolitical Participation
    • Electoral Participation
  • Participation Motives
    • Ideology
    • Group/Individual Identity
    • Instrumentality
    • Emotions
    • Social Embeddedness
    • Grievances
  • Political Socialization
  • Repression
    • Repression Circumvention
    • Perceived Repression
    • Exposure to Repression
  • Tactical Choices
  • Communication Channels


The data of the three waves of online survey contains three sub-data (W1, W3 and PD)

Dataset of wave1 (W1)

The dataset contains 1051 cases who completed the online survey between February 10th and March 4th.

Dataset of wave3 (W3)

The dataset contains 1051 cases who completed the online survey between June 16th and July 17th.

Panel Data (PD)

The PD dataset contains 200 respondents who were tracked in three waves of the online survey. The second wave of the online survey was conducted between April 12th and May 10th.

In total, thirty eight percent of respondents who provided their e-mail addresses only participated in the first wave, 16% dropped out in wave 2 and 6% just missed participation in wave 2.

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